We investigated the influence of lake trophic status on accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in littoral and profundal invertebrates from 19 lakes in southern Sweden. The PCB concentration in profundal chironomids (Chironomus sp.) was negatively correlated with lake trophy but the concentration in littoral crayfish (Pacifasticus leniusculus) was unrelated to shifting nutrient regimes. PCB concentrations in chironomids were negatively correlated, while crayfish did not correlate with lake total phosphorus. Two findings indicate that different processes determine bioaccumulation in littoral and profundal invertebrates: (i) a lack of correlation between PCB concentrations in crayfish and chironomids within lakes and (ii) some differences in congener distribution in the two species. We suggest a possible explanation in that chironomids are directly exposed to settling material from the pelagic zone, while crayfish are omnivorous and feed mainly in the littoral zone. A intensive investigation on one pond population could not reveal any individual factors, such as lipid content, size, or sex, influencing bioaccumulation of PCBs in crayfish.