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A new one-step multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of avian haemosporidian parasites

  • Arif Ciloglu
  • Vincenzo A. Ellis
  • Rasa Bernotienė
  • Gediminas Valkiūnas
  • Staffan Bensch
Publishing year: 2019-01
Language: English
Pages: 191-201
Publication/Series: Parasitology Research
Volume: 118
Issue: 1
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Springer

Abstract english

Accurate detection and identification are essential components for epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary surveys of avian haemosporidian parasites. Microscopy has been used for more than 100 years to detect and identify these parasites; however, this technique requires considerable training and high-level expertise. Several PCR methods with highly sensitive and specific detection capabilities have now been developed in addition to microscopic examination. However, recent studies have shown that these molecular protocols are insufficient at detecting mixed infections of different haemosporidian parasite species and genetic lineages. In this study, we developed a simple, sensitive, and specific multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and discrimination of parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in single and mixed infections. Relative quantification of parasite DNA using qPCR showed that the multiplex PCR can amplify parasite DNA ranging in concentration over several orders of magnitude. The detection specificity and sensitivity of this new multiplex PCR assay were also tested in two different laboratories using previously screened natural single and mixed infections. These findings show that the multiplex PCR designed here is highly effective at identifying both single and mixed infections from all three genera of avian haemosporidian parasites. We predict that this one-step multiplex PCR assay, being convenient and inexpensive, will become a widely used method for molecular screening of avian haemosporidian parasites.


  • Microbiology
  • Haemoproteus
  • Leucocytozoon
  • Mixed infection
  • Multiplex PCR
  • Parasite detection
  • Plasmodium


  • ISSN: 0932-0113
Vincenzo Ellis
E-mail: vincenzo [dot] alexander_ellis [at] biol [dot] lu [dot] se

Visiting research fellow


Sölvegatan 37, Lund