A molecular phylogeny of the Lecanora rupicola group is presented, based on ITS sequence analyses. The study includes saxicolous and corticolous members of the Lecanora rupicola group as well as other Lecanora species with pruinose apothecia. A phylogenetic hypothesis for species in Lecanora s. lat. and various other genera in Lecanoraceae, based on an alignment-free distance estimation technique, shows that the Lecanora rupicola group forms a monophyletic clade within Lecanoraceae. Affinities to the core group of Lecanora are not well supported, likewise the monophyly of Lecanora s. str. with other species groups in Lecanora, such as the lobate taxa (and Rhizoplaca) is not supported. A more detailed analysis involving Lecanora species with pruinose apothecial discs was carried out with model-based Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (B/MCMC) tree sampling. The results suggest the monophyly of the Lecanora species that are characterized by the presence of chromones. Corticolous as well as saxicolous species are included. Lepraria flavescens is closely related to the Lecanora swartzii subgroup, and the new name Lecanora rouxii nom. nov. is introduced for that species. Other Lecanora species with pruinose discs are riot closely related to the Lecanora rupicola group.