A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory
- Functional zoology
- Department of Biology
- Pheromone Group
to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector
co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory.
Results: We first identified and functionally characterized a Δ11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase
from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The Δ11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that
oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different species can be used as a molecular toolbox to produce pheromone components or pheromone component precursors of potential use for control of a variety of moths.
Conclusions: This study is a first proof-of-principle that it is possible to “brew” biologically active moth pheromone components through in vitro co-expression of pheromone biosynthetic enzymes, without having to provide supplementary precursors. Substrates present in the yeast alone appear to be sufficient.
- The pheromone brewery
- Evolutionary mechanisms of pheromone divergence in Lepidoptera
- Pheromone Group
- ISSN: 1475-2859