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More on how and why: response to commentaries

  • Kevin Laland
  • John Odling-Smee
  • William Hoppitt
  • Tobias Uller
Publishing year: 2013
Language: English
Pages: 793-810
Publication/Series: Biology & Philosophy
Volume: 28
Document type: Journal article (letter)
Publisher: Springer

Abstract english

We are grateful to the commentators for taking the time to respond to our article. Too many interesting and important points have been raised for us to tackle them all in this response, and so in the below we have sought to draw out the major themes. These include problems with both the term ‘ultimate causation’ and the proximate-ultimate causation dichotomy more generally, clarification of the meaning of reciprocal causation, discussion of issues related to the nature of development and phenotypic plasticity and their roles in evolution, and consideration of the need for an extended evolutionary synthesis.


  • Biological Sciences


  • ISSN: 0169-3867