Predicting phosphorus bioavailability from high-ash biochars
In the present study, (a) chemical analysis - including total P and extractable P (2% citric acid, 2% formic acid, and neutral ammonium citrate extraction), and (b) a bioassay test using rye-grass grown in a P deficient sandy soil were used to compare the P bioavailability of different biochars. Biochars were produced from two different feedstocks (dairy manure-wood mixture, MAe; biosolid-wood mixture, BSe) at four different pyrolysis temperatures (250, 350, 450, and 550A degrees C).
Results showed that P in feedstock was fully recovered in the biochars. After 6 harvests, the biochars were as effective as the P fertilizers tested [Sechura phosphate rocks (SPR) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (CaP)] in increasing the shoot yield. However, P uptake followed the order of CaP > MAe biochars > BSe biochars > SPR, on a same TP basis. Based on the Mitscherlich equation, 2% formic acid was the most sensitive indicator of P bioavailability in biochars.
The results suggest that high-ash biochars with high P concentrations are potential P sources with high-agronomic efficiency. We propose the use of 2% formic acid extraction to predict the availability of P in ash-rich biochars.
- Other Agricultural Sciences
- ISSN: 0032-079X