We present the red-listed plants and fungi that have been found in the central parts of the parish of Stenbrohult, southern Sweden. In the middle of the study areas Carl Linnaeus was born in 1707, and he spent his summers there until 1727. Of the 11 currently red-listed vascular plants (Gärdenfors 2000) that have been recorded since 1970 all occurred there also 300 years ago. Mosses, lichens and fungi have mainly been investigated during the last 15 years, but mosses still only in a small part of the study area. Three species of mosses, 51 of fungi and 26 of lichens that are red-listed in Sweden has been found in the area since 1970. These high numbers of red-listed lichens and fungi are surprising because the region has been assumed to be among the most species poor with respect to red-listed species in southern Sweden. The reasons for the high biodiversity in Stenbrohult are 1) comparatively many very old trees of southern deciduous trees (mainly oak, beech and lime), 2) several remnants of southern deciduous forests with long-term tree continuity, 3) several unfertilised pastures and meadows with late harvest still maintained by grazing and mowing, 4) some pasts with more calcium rich soils than in the surrounding region and 5) a large unpolluted lake (Möckeln) with a natural water regime included in the area. Threats to the long-term survival of the red-listed species are discussed. At least the following red-listed vascular plants have disappeared from the study area during the last 150 years: Tephroseris palustris, Crassula aquatica, Bromus secalinus, Bromus arvensis, Sherardia arvensis, Anthemis cotula, Agrostemma githago and possibly Radiola linoides and Lycopodiella inundata. The lichen Lobaria scrobiculata was collected at two sites in 1935 and 1942, Collema fasciculare before 1767 and Ramalina thrausta in 1935, but these red-listed lichen species are now locally extinct. The need for rapid habitat restoration to lower the “extinction debt” is stressed. This is especially urgent for features that have declined most since Linnaeus´s time, e.g. old oaks, unfertilised pastures and meadows with late mowing followed by grazing.