Two new eudesmane derivatives (3 and 8) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Kaunia lasiophthalma Griseb, together with 14 known eudesmane, germacrane, and guaiane sesquiterpenes, and four flavones. The structures and relative configurations of all the compounds were established by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The anticancer activity of sesquiterpenes 1, 3, 6-9, 11, 12, 14, and 16 was evaluated in vitro with the breast cancer cell lines HCC1937, JIMT-1, L56Br-C1, MCF-7, and SK-BR-3, and compared with the cytotoxicity in the non-cancerous breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. All compounds were found to possess anticancer activity, and compound 1 was the most potent in all of the investigated cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 2.0 and 6.2 μM. In order to demonstrate the importance of the α-methylene-γ-lactone/ester moiety present in all compounds for the effects on the cells, the methyl cysteine adduct 21 was prepared from 9 and found to be inactive or considerably less potent.