Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a key enzyme in fatty acid mobilization from lipid stores, is expressed in the liver and decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity has been reported in our HSL null mouse model. Here, an integrated approach, comprising transcriptomics and proteomics together with targeted metabolite analysis, was used to investigate the liver phenotype of HSL null mice. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in lipid and polyamine metabolism in HSL null mice compared with wild-type mice and in genes controlling the immune system in mice on high-fat diet versus mice on normal diet. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS and/or MS/MS allowed identification of 52 and 22 unique proteins differentially regulated according to the genotype and diet, respectively. Changes were observed mainly for proteins related to metabolism, including several proteins involved in polyamine metabolism or exhibiting methyl transferase activity. Despite the coordinated changes in mRNA and protein levels in polyamine pathways, no significant differences in levels of key polyamine metabolites were detected between the two genotypes. This study identifies a link between HSL and polyamine metabolism, which deserves further attention in view of the emerging data suggesting that disturbances in polyamine metabolism may affect insulin sensitivity. The present work also describes a limited correlation between mRNA, protein and metabolite levels, thus, underscoring the importance of integrated approaches.