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High concentration of kynurenic acid in bile and pancreatic juice

  • Piotr Paluszkiewicz
  • Wojciech Zgrajka
  • Tomasz Saran
  • Janusz Schabowski
  • Jose L. Valverde Piedra
  • Olexandr Fedkiv
  • Sofia Rengman
  • Stefan Pierzynowski
  • Waldemar A. Turski
Publishing year: 2009
Language: English
Pages: 637-641
Publication/Series: Amino Acids
Volume: 37
Issue: 4
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Springer

Abstract english

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the content of KYNA in gastric juice, bile and pancreatic juice and intestinal content. KYNA was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentrations of KYNA in human gastric juice is 9.91 +/- A 0.71 nM in contrast to human bile (832.5 +/- A 204.1 and 306.8 +/- A 35.2 nM) obtained from patients with cholecystolithiasis and obstructive jaundice, respectively. In pigs, the KYNA levels in bile and pancreatic juice are 1,113.3 +/- A 63.34 and 757.0 +/- A 394.4 nM, respectively. The KYNA concentration increases along the digestive system, reaching 1,638 nM in the colon content. We suggest that the liver and pancreas affect the content of kynurenic acid in the lumen of the digestive tract.


  • Zoology
  • Gastric juice
  • Kynurenic acid
  • Bile
  • Pancreatic juice


  • ISSN: 0939-4451
E-mail: olexandr [dot] fedkiv [at] food [dot] lth [dot] se

Project assistant

Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition

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Research group

Animal Physiology


Gut Biology