This chapter is intended as a background on natural photosynthesis for those interested in artificial photosynthesis. It describes how light is used for creating positive and negative charges, and how these charges are transferred through the molecular assemblies in the membranes. Next, the chapter also describes how the charge transport leads to creation of a pH difference across the photosynthetic membrane, and how charge and pH differences lead to the production of high-energy phosphate that can be used in chemical synthesis. The chapter overviews photophosphorylation in chromatophores of photosynthetic bacteria and, discusses carbon dioxide assimilation systems in oxygenic organisms. Finally, it describes how the type of photosynthesis present today has evolved over billions of years, and what can we expect of the future that we are ourselves able to influence. In addition, in the end, the chapter considers some interesting photosynthesis-related questions relevant to whole land and aquatic plants.