Two new African species of Teloschistes are described: T. arabicus Frödén sp. nov. and T. inflatus Frödén sp. nov. T. arabicus is a montane species, occurring in the southern parts of the Arabian peninsula and the adjacent parts of eastern Africa. T. inflatus is only known from South Africa, and was previously included in T. perrugosus Müll.Arg. Useful characters for distinguishing the misunderstood species T. perrugosus and T. pulvinaris (Zahlbr.) Almb. as well as their distributions are discussed. T. pulvinaris is also typified, since both the lectotype and isotype are mixed collections. T. chrysocarpoides Vain. is showing several deviating characters compared to the other Teloschistes species and is believed not to belong in Teloschistes s. str. Its generic affinity is currently uncertain. A key to the Teloschistes species of Africa is provided.