Some European species of the genera Parmelia and Punctelia are analysed using molecular, morphological and chemical characters and notes on their distribution are presented. ITS sequences were compared from a total of 31 representative specimens. Parmelia ernstiae and P. serrana form a sister group to P. pinnatifida and P. saxatilis, whereas P. discordans and P. omphalodes are closely related and form a sister group to all former four species. Bootstrap support values from the PAUP and PHYLIP analyses are used to confirm relationships between Parmelia and Punctelia species. Parmelia ernstiae, P. serrana, Punctelia jeckeri and P. subrudecta are reported from additional countries and provinces. Parmelia ernstiae is reported from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Czech Republic for the first time, and P. serrana is new to Germany, Russia and Ukraine. Data on chemistry are collected both from the literature and from our own investigations. The chemical compounds present in Parmelia ernstiae, P. saxatilis and P. serrana were analysed and compared using HPLC. These morphologically similar species are chemically different.