Nutrient uptake by forest trees is dependent on ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia that grow out into the soil from the mycorrhizal root tips. We estimated the production of EM mycelia in root free samples of pure spruce and mixed spruce-oak stands in southern Sweden as mycelia grown into sand-filled mesh bags placed at three different soil depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm). The mesh bags were collected after 12 months and we found that 590+/-70 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of pure mycelia was produced in spruce stands and 420+/-160 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in mixed stands. The production of EM mycelia in the mesh bags decreased with soil depth in both stand types but tended to be more concentrated in the top soil in the mixed stands compared to the spruce stands. The fungal biomass was also determined in soil samples taken from different depths by using phospholipid fatty acids as markers for fungal biomass. Subsamples were incubated at 20degreesC for 5 months and the amount of fungal biomass that degraded during the incubation period was used as an estimate of EM fungal biomass. The EM biomass in the soil profile decreased with soil depth and did not differ significantly between the two stand types. The total EM biomass in the pure spruce stands was estimated to be 4.8+/-0.9x10(3) kg ha(-1) and in the mixed stands 5.8+/-1.1x10(3) kg ha(-1) down to 70 cm depth. The biomass and production estimates of EM mycelia suggest a very long turnover time or that necromass has been included in the biomass estimates. The amount of N present in EM mycelia was estimated to be 121 kg N ha(-1) in spruce stands and 187 kg N ha(-1) in mixed stands. The delta(13)C value for mycelia in mesh bags was not influenced by soil depth, indicating that the fungi obtained all their carbon from the tree roots. The delta(13)C values in mycelia collected from mixed stands were intermediate to values from pure spruce and pure oak stands suggesting that the EM mycelia received carbon from both spruce and oak trees in the mixed stands. The delta(15)N value for the EM mycelia and the surrounding soil increased with soil depth suggesting that they obtained their entire N from the surrounding soil.