Javascript is not activated in your browser. This website needs javascript activated to work properly.
You are here

Rhopalia are integrated parts of the central nervous system in box jellyfish

  • Anders Garm
  • Peter Ekström
  • M. Boudes
  • Dan-E Nilsson
Publishing year: 2006
Language: English
Pages: 333-343
Publication/Series: Cell and Tissue Research1974-01-01+01:00
Volume: 325
Issue: 2
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Springer

Abstract english

In cubomedusae, the central nervous system (CNS) is found both in the bell (the ring nerve) and in the four eye-bearing sensory structures (the rhopalia). The ring nerve and the rhopalia are connected via the rhopalial stalks and examination of the structure of the rhopalial stalks therefore becomes important when trying to comprehend visual processing. In the present study, the rhopalial stalk of the cubomedusae Tripedalia cystophora has been examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. A major part of the ring nerve is shown to continue into the stalk and to contact the rhopalial neuropil directly. Ultrastructural analysis of synapse distribution in the rhopalial stalk has failed to show any clustering, which indicates that integration of the visual input is probably spread throughout the CNS. Together, the results indicate that cubomedusae have one coherent CNS including the rhopalia. Additionally, a novel gastrodermal nerve has been found in the stalk; this nerve is not involved in visual processing but is likely to be mechanosensory and part of a proprioceptory system.


  • Cell Biology
  • CNS
  • synapse
  • Tripedalia cystophora
  • (Cnidaria : Cubozoa)
  • jellyfish
  • eyes
  • rhopalia


  • Lund Vision Group
  • ISSN: 1432-0878
Dan-E Nilsson
E-mail: dan-e [dot] nilsson [at] biol [dot] lu [dot] se


Functional zoology

+46 46 222 93 45

+46 70 623 10 64



Research group

Lund Vision Group


Doctoral students and postdocs

Phd Students, main supervisor


Downloads & links