In 1994 and 1995, we investigated the relationship between stream morphology and water chemistry and levels of organochlorines (HCB, PCB, and DDT) in young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) from 25 streams in southern Sweden. Contrary to earlier findings for lakes, we found a positive relationship between trophic status (total phosphorus) and uptake of persistent pollutants in stream biota (trout). This difference between benthic, stream environments and pelagic, lake environments may be related to processes affecting pollutant uptake, i.e., pollutant "spiralling" or the shift from heterotrophy to autotrophy in streams. Land use in the catchment area of the streams also affected pollutant levels in trout, with higher levels in agricultural landscapes and lower levels in forested areas. Size of catchment area, however, did not influence uptake of pollutants in trout. The results indicate that eutrophication of streams by agricultural activities and excessive nutrient loading may increase uptake of persistent pollutants in stream biota.