Along a stream, we investigated whether the abundance of stone loach (Barbatula barbatula, L.) was related to the presence of brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.) and instream habitat variables. First, a field survey was carried out where different habitat variables and the densities of both species were quantified and subjected to principal components analysis. Then the abundance of stone loach was related to the scores of the retained axes (eigenvalues >1). The abundance of stone loach was positively correlated to substrate particle size, amount of shade, temperature, discharge and current velocity, but negatively correlated to brown trout abundance. Secondly, a month-long field enclosure experiment in a stream was performed to test for any negative effects of brown trout on stone loach growth. Four treatments were used: intraspecific competition (stone loach at double density), interspecific competition (stone loach + small trout), predation (stone loach + large trout) and a control (stone loach alone). The results showed that large trout tended to have negative effects on final stone loach biomass. The absence of a negative effect of large trout on resource density suggests that nonlethal effects rather than resource competition caused this trend.