Antisera produced against peptides deduced from potato nda1 and ndb1, homologues of yeast genes for mitochondrial rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenases, recognise respective proteins upon expression in Escherichiacoli. In western blots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mitochondrial proteins, the NDB and NDA antibodies specifically detect polypeptides of 61 and 48 kDa, respectively. The proteins are found in mitochondria of flowers, leaves and tubers. Different signal intensities are seen relative to other respiratory chain components when organs are compared, indicating variations in relative abundance of dehydrogenases within the plant. The antibodies detect single polypeptides, of similar size as in potato, in mitochondria from several plant species. No specific cross-reaction was found in chloroplasts, but a weak NDA signal of 50 kDa was found in microsomes, possibly associated with peroxisomes. Two- dimensional native/SDS-PAGE analyses indicate that both NDA and NDB proteins reside as higher molecular mass forms, possibly oligomeric. The NDB immunoreactive protein is released by sonication of mitochondria, but resistant to extraction by digitonin and partially to Triton X-100. In comparison, the NDA protein remains bound to the inner membrane at sonication or digitonin treatment, but can be solubilised with Triton. Investigation of a beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) induction system for external NADH dehydrogenase indicates that the NDB antibody does not recognise the induced external NADH dehydrogenase in this species, but possibly an external NADPH dehydrogenase.