Long-term ammonium nutrition of Arabidopsis increases the extrachloroplastic NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level in leaves but does not impair photosynthetic capacity
Ammonium nutrition has been suggested to be associated with alterations in the oxidation-reduction state of leaf cells. Herein, we show that ammonium nutrition in Arabidopsis thaliana increases leaf NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio, reactive oxygen species content and accumulation of biomolecules oxidized by free radicals. We used the method of rapid fractionation of protoplasts to analyse which cellular compartments were over-reduced under ammonium supply and revealed that observed changes in NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio involved only the extrachloroplastic fraction. We also showed that ammonium nutrition changes mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the functional impairment associated with ammonium nutrition is mainly associated with redox reactions outside the chloroplast.