Revised systematics and higher classification of pierid butterflies (Lepidoptera Pieridae) based on molecular data
- Department of Biology
The butterfly family Pieridae comprises approximately 1000 described species placed in 85 genera, but the higher classification has not yet been settled. We used molecular data from eight gene regions (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear protein-coding genes) comprising a total of ~6700 bp from 96 taxa to infer a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Based on this hypothesis, we revise the higher classification for all pierid genera. We resurrect the tribe Teracolini stat. rev. in the subfamily Pierinae to include the genera Teracolus, Pinacopteryx, Gideona, Ixias, Eronia, Colotis and most likely Calopieris. We transfer Hebomoia to the tribe Anthocharidini and assign the previously unplaced genera Belenois and Dixeia to the subtribe Aporiina. Three lineages near the base of Pierinae (Leptosia, Elodina and Nepheronia + Pareronia) remain unplaced. For each of these, we describe and delineate new tribes: Elodinini Braby tribus nova, Leptosiaini Braby tribus nova and Nepheroniini Braby tribus nova. The proposed higher classification is based on well-supported monophyletic groups and is likely to remain stable even with the addition of more data.
- ISSN: 0300-3256